Not being of the West; being behind the West; not being modern enough; not being developed or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, transparent, or democratic – these descriptions have all served to stigmatize certain states through history.
This title is Turkish translation of After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West, Cambridge University Press, 2011. From the backcover of the English original:
“Not being of the West; being behind the West; not being modern enough; not being developed or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, transparent, or democratic – these descriptions have all served to stigmatize certain states through history. Drawing on constructivism as well as the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat, first published in 2010, demonstrates that stigmatization in international relations can lead to a sense of national shame, as well as auto-Orientalism and inferior status. Ayşe Zarakol argues that stigmatized states become extra-sensitive to concerns about status, and shape their foreign policy accordingly. The theoretical argument is supported by a detailed historical overview of central examples of the established/outsider dichotomy throughout the evolution of the modern states system, and in-depth studies of Turkey after the First World War, Japan after the Second World War, and Russia after the Cold War.”
Part I Of Gates and Keepers in the International System
Outsiders and Insiders in the International System
States as Outsiders
Part II An Imperial Message
"Barbarians": Turkey (1918-1938)
"The Children": Japan (1945-1979)
"The Enigmatic Enemy": Russia (1990-2007)
Conclusion: Zealots or Herodians?
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