Tell Atchana, Ancient Alalakh, Vol. 1

The 2003-2004 Excavations Seasons

DERLEYEN(LER): 
Kutlu Aslıhan Yener

LANGUAGE: English

CATEGORY: Archaeology
Archaeology and History of Art
Art History
PAGES: 284
SIZE: 23 x 30 cm.
EDITION: 1st print, May 2010
HARDCOVER ISBN: 9786055607135
HARDCOVER PRICE: 140 TL

The Oriental Institute initiated the first two excavation seasons based at Tell Atchana, ancient Alalakh, in the Amuq Valley, east of Antakya, Turkey with a team from the University of Chicago under the directorship of Prof. Kutlu Aslıhan Yener.

The Oriental Institute initiated the first two excavation seasons based at Tell Atchana, ancient Alalakh, in the Amuq Valley, east of Antakya, Turkey with a team from the University of Chicago under the directorship of Prof. Kutlu Aslıhan Yener. The Tell Atchana/Alalakh Excavations are presently under the auspices of the Turkish Ministry of Culture. Institutional support is provided by Koc University in Istanbul with the continuing collaboration of the Antakya Mustafa Kemal University. This volume with specialist reports presents the first two seasons (2003-2004) of the new round of ongoing excavations at the site after a pause of 54 years. Archaeological and textual evidence from the earlier 1930-1940’s excavations has defined this important site as the regional capital (Alalakh) of a small territorial state, Mukiš, which existed during the 2nd millennium BC. Deposits from the Late Bronze Age occupations were identified above an extensive Middle Bronze Age settlement with evidence of site-wide destruction and reorganization of the settlement at the turn of the 13th-14th centuries BC. The publication of the 2003-2004 results represents the first volume in a monograph series of the team’s continued systematic work at the site. Subsequent volumes will specifically target the Late Bronze Age levels and the Middle Bronze Age city. A separate volume on ceramics will present the relative sequences, technical analyses, and experimental procedures on pottery. Earlier references pertaining to Leonard Woolley’s operations, the excavation results and ongoing interpretations of these materials prior to the team’s new excavations are listed in the bibliography. Further references for the 2003-2004 seasons can be found in the bibliography and on the project website www.alalakh.org.

CONTENTS

List of Figures

List of Tables

Preface

Acknowledgments

Team Members

Bibliography

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION / Kutlu Aslıhan Yener

INTRODUCTION

REGIONAL HISTORY

HISTORY OF RESEARCH

RESEARCH DESIGN AT ALALAKH

THE 2003-2004 EXCAVATIONS

CHAPTER 2: EXCAVATION RESULTS / Kutlu Aslıhan Yener, G. Bike Yazıcıoğlu

AREA 1

Phase 2: Fortress

Phase 1: Mixed Cultural Fill and Modern Deposition

AREA 2

Phase 2: Habitation Quarters

Building A

Alley or Corridor

Outdoor Activity Area

Building B

Street

Building C

Phase 1: Craft Quarters and Architectural Remains

Phase 1b Craft Quarters

Phase 1a Craft Quarters

Phase 1 Architectural Structures

Phase 1 Street

Phase 1a Stone Enclosure Wall

Surface Finds

AREA 3

Phase 4: Middle Bronze Age City Wall

Phase 3: Step Trench Necropolis

Phase 2: Kitchen/Workshop

Phase 1: Latest LBA Necropolis Burials and Plastered Tomb

Phase 1a/1b: Stone Enclosure Wall and Installation 3

Surface Finds

COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS

The Architecture

ENCLOSURE WALL

THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE CRAFT QUARTERS (PHASES 1A AND 1B)

Stratigraphic and Chronological Imlications

CHAPTER 3: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ALALAKH 2003-2004 SEASON POTTERY WITH WOOLLEY'S

LEVELS / Robert A. Mullins

STRATIGRAPHY AND POTTERY

THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (AREA 3: PHASES 2-4)

Phase 4 (Area 3): The City Wall (Woolley's Levels VII)

Phase 3 (Area 3): The MBIIC Burials (Woolley's Levels VII-VI)

Bowls (B)

Closed Pots (T)

Juglets (J)

Bottles (E)

Discussion of the MB Burials

Phase 2 (Area 3): Kıtchen/Workshop (Locus 03-3005)

Bowls (B)

Goblets and Beakers (G)

Kraters (K)

Jars (R)

Juglets (J)

Bottles (E)

Discussion of the Kitchen/Workshop Assemblage (Woolley's Level VI)

TRANSITION FROM MIDDLE BRONZE TO LATE BRONZE (WOOLLEY'S LEVELS VI-V)

THE LATE BRONZE AGE (AREAS 2-3: PHASES 1-2)

Phase 1 (Area 3): The Plastered Tomb

Phase 2 (Area 2): Buildings A, B and C (The Dating of Woolley's Level I Houses)

Phase 2 (Area 2) : The Pottery From Buildings A, B and C

Plates (P)

Bowls (B)

Goblets and Beakers (G)

Kraters (K)

Colanders (O)

Closed pots (T)

Stands (Y)

Phase 1 (Area2): Craft Quarters

The Phase 1 Pottery in Area 2

Jugs (N)

Vases (V)

Discussion of Late Bronze Age Speciality Wares

CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY

Woolley's Level VII (17th Century BC)

Woolley's Level VIA (16th Century BC)

Woolley's Level VIB (16th Century BC)

Woolley's Level V (Early 15th Century BC)

Woolley's Level IV (MID-15th Century Through the 14th Century)

CHAPTER 4: CYPRIOT POTTERY / Ekin Kozal

WARES

Red-on-Black/Red-on-Red

Black Lustrous Wheel-Made

White Slip

Monochrome

Base-Ring I

Base-Ring II

Red Lustrous Wheel-Made Ware

White Lustrous Wheel-Made Ware

White Shaved Ware

White Slip II

CONTEXTS

Area 1 (Squares 32.52, 32.53, 32.63)

Area 2 Northwestern Sector (Squares 44.45, 44.46, 44.54, 44.55)

Area 2 Southeastern Sector (Squares 44.68, 44.69, 44.79, 44.80)

Area 3 (Squares 45.62, 45.71, 45.72)

CONCLUSIONS

CATALOGUE

CHAPTER 5: MYCENAEAN POTTERY / Robert B. Koehl

INTRODUCTION

CATALOGUE

DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 6: EPIGRAPHIC REPORT / Jacob Lauinger

AO3-R1001+A03-R1139

Description

Dating

A03-R1002

Description

Dating

A03-R1112

Description

Dating

A03-R1600

Description

Dating

A03-R1326

Description

Dating

CHAPTER 7: REPORT ON THE SEALS AND SEALINGS FOUND AT TELL ATCHANA DURING THE 2003 SEASON OF

EXCAVATION / Dominique Collon

SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS

EARL STAMP SEALS

UNCLASSIFIED SEALS

MIDDLE BRONZE AGE GLYPTIC

LATE BRONZE AGE GLYPTIC

CHAPTER 8 : SMALL FINDS / Kutlu Aslıhan Yener

INTRODUCTION

TERRACOTTAS AND OTHER CLAY OBJECTS

BONE, ANTLER, AND IVORY

STONE OBJECTS

METAL TOOLS AND WEAPONS

Weapons

Tools

PERSONAL ORNAMENTS: PINS, JEWELRY, AND BEADS

GLASS AND FAIENCE

CHAPTER 9: BURIALS / Alexis T. Boutin

ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXTS

OSTEOLOGICAL METHODS

SUBADULT HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR

ADULT HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR

THE PLASTERED TOMB

DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 10: FLOURISHING AGRICULTURE IN TIMES OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY: THE ARCHAEOBOTANICAL AND ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE FROM TELL ATCHANA / Simone Riehl

INTRODUCTION

The Late Bronze Age Environment

The Political Background

METHODS

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Taphonomic Issues

The Crop Assemblage

Environmental Aspects

Agro-Production At Late Bronze Age Alalakh

CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 11: ANTHRACOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON CHARCOAL SAMPLES FROM ATCHANA / Katleen Deckers

CHAPTER 12: FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE 2003-2004 EXCAVATIONS AT TELL ATCHANA / Canan Çakırlar, Stine Rossel

INTRODUCTION

THE MATERIAL

THE DATA

DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 13: METALLURGICAL ANALYSIS OF CLOTHING PINS FROM THE 2004 SEASON / Stephanie Selover

INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES

RESULTS

DISCUSSION OF THE DATA

CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 14: TEMPLE DEEP SOUNDING INVESTIGATIONS 2001-2006 / Stephen Batiuk, Mara Horowitz

EXCAVATIONS OF THE EARLY LEVELS AT TELL ATCHANA

The 2001 Section Cleaning

Section 1

Section 2

Ceramics from the 2001 Sections

Investigations on the Early Levels of Tell Atchana

Conclusion

APPENDIX B: 2003-2004 SMALL FINDS CATALOGUE / K. Aslıhan Yener, G. Bike Yazıcıoğlu

POTTERY

TERRACOTTAS AND OTHER CLAY OBJECTS

BONE, ANTLER, AND IVORY

STONE OBJECTS

METAL TOOLS AND WEAPONS

PERSONAL ORNAMENTS: PINS, JEWELRY, AND BEADS

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